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Entry to Employment

Country of implementation
United Kingdom
General short description of the innovation
The "Entry to Employment" Learning programme aims to help those young people aged 16 ?18 years who are not participating in any form of post-16 learning and who are not yet ready or able to directly enter modern apprenticeship programmes, further education or employment due to lack of education or personal issues. It aspires to improve young people?s employability by preparing them for progression to employment and provide employment with training, Modern Apprenticeships and further education. The programme is not time-bound, but is based on the needs of each individual. The balance of accredited and non-accredited training was to be individually designed, according to participants? ?preferred learning styles and their likelihood of achieving success?. Participants received a minimum allowance is 40 per week. In addition, expenses are met in full and they also get bonuses for starting E2E and for positives outcomes such as completing their Individual Activity Plan, distance travelled or gaining a qualification.
Target group
Youth
Policy Field
  • education
Type of Policy
  • public
  • public-private partnership
Duration of the policy
2003-2010
Scope of innovation
  • Scope: structural
  • Spatial coverage: England
General description of (intended) objectives and strategies
The general objective of E2E was to bring NEETs back into learning and to combine their learning with practical experience in their communities. The more specific aim was for young people to develop their motivation and confidence, personal effectiveness, basic and/or key skills and to acquire vocational knowledge, skills and understanding through sampling a range of work and learning contexts. With this in mind, the E2E curriculum had three interdependent strands: basic and/or key skills, vocational skills and development, and personal and social development. All learners were required some of each although the exact mix would vary from learner to learner reflecting their aptitudes, abilities and needs.
Type of innovation
  • new form of policy implementation/delivery
  • new policy, practice or measure
New outputs
  • training schemes
Clarification of intended mechanisms, outputs and outcomes (optional)
E2E was a key programme for helping NEETs back into learning and to combine their learning with practical experience in their communities. This was done with much greater flexibility in meeting the needs of individual learners compared to previous programmes. E2E was not time bound or specified in terms of guided learning hours or attendance, other than meeting the minimum requirements and is not qualification driven (although qualifications are a significant incentive for some young people). This was done to develop the competences for the hardest to help over a long period of time.
Intended target group
Young school leavers aged 16-18
Working age population
  • educational level (low/medium/high) (low)
  • employment situation (unemployed)
Actors involved in policy-making/implementation and/or evaluation
  • agency or national social insurance body (Jobcentre Plus)
  • central state
  • citizen communities
  • municipal government
  • private for-profit organisations (commercial)
  • private not-for-profit organisations (e.g. Third Sector organisation or NGO)
Clarification of the role of various actors
Within each pathfinder area, a partnership was formed involving the local Learning Skills Councils (LSC), local Connexions Service, providers and other interested bodies to oversee the development of this work. The development of effective partnerships was fundamental to the enhanced model of delivery underpinning E2E. Effective multi-agency working and integrated delivery between partners and other support organisations was seen as a key ingredient in delivering quality provision and delivering a flexible learning programme that meets the needs of individual learners.
Intended output
  • others (pre-employment training; skills and competence development)
  • training schemes
Clarification of outcomes in terms of impacting resilience and labour market inclusion
Many of the E2E partcipants were amongst the most marginalised and vulnerable young people in society (Spielhofer et al. 2003). E2E was a key programme for helping NEETs back into learning and to combine their learning with practical experience in their communities. According to an early assessment (GHK 2004), partners reported that the E2E was more able to meet learners? needs compared to previous programmes, that learners were given more choice in the service provision and that the flexibility of the programme was helpful to build on competences over a long period of time. For those who left the programme, E2E learners were more likely to enter employment, especially part-time employment, but less likely to enter other positive destinations, especially moving into other forms of learning. / / Leadbeater (2004: 18) argues that one of the consequences of E2E?s very personalised learning strategy has been a broad shift in the remit of education and training providers. Rather than acting as producers or reproducers of knowledge, providers have increasingly become seen as ?solution assemblers? required to offer advocacy, brokering and advice to help learners make the best possible choices. This argument was supported by the Association of Learning Providers who said that part of the effectiveness of the E2E programme has always been that it did not necessarily rely on the attainment of a qualification in order to be seen to work. It concentrated in a large part on the attainment of "soft" employability skills, and indeed saw employment (in any form, with or without formal training attached) as a positive outcome for many of its participants for whom study towards a qualification was clearly not appropriate. / / Furthermore, Simmons argues (Simmons 2009: 148) that ?where poor work dominates a precarious labour market, supply-side labour market initiatives, such as E2E, may collude with or reward the prevalence of poor work, rather than challenging it?. He concludes rather harshly that ?rather than preparing trainees for meaningful careers in a ?knowledge economy?, the chief function of this form of WBL [work-based learning] appears to be ensuring a supply of labour that is adaptable and ready to submit to the hegemony of private enterprise? (idem: 149). / / References: / - GHK (2004). Evaluation of Entry to Employment Pathfinders and initial phase of national establishment: final interim report - executive summary. Available: http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/pre2005/learningopportunities/youngpeople/evaluation-of-entry-to-employment-pathfinders-and-initial-phase-of-national-establishment-interim-report-executive-summary.pdf / - Leadbeater, C. (2004). Learning about personalisation: How can we put the learner at the heart of the education system? London. / - Simmons, R. (2009). Entry to employment: discourses of inclusion and employability in work?based learning for young people, Journal of Education and Work, 22:2,137-151. / - Spielhofer, T./Mann, P./ Sims, D. (2003). Entry to employment (E2E) participant study. London: LSDA.
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